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Decembre , in D. Cant emir, Histoire de VEmpire Ottoman. In his article "The Myth of the Golden Age" the eminent Ottomanist Cemal Kafadar points out that certain ideas and notions have been too readily "re-circulated without scrutiny" in many scholarly narratives dealing with Ottoman history.
Celia Kerslake at the University of Oxford, Translation in appendix. Kafadar eds , Suleyman the Second and his Time Istanbul, , pp. Kafadar, "The Myth of the Golden Age", p. The events also included a panel discussion on the topic of the Ottomans facing West during the first half of the eighteenth century. A Teleological Agenda 3 abroad either. In February the Turkish Embassy in London organised an event that saw the academic Talat Halman and the stage actress Yildiz Renter present a lecture in Oxford, introducing Turkish culture and history to a wider audience.
The idea that the reign of Ahmed III witnessed a break with Ottoman tradition also seems to have taken root in the West, as illustrated by the case of the prestigious Encyclopedia of Islam. Harold Bowen, in his entry on "Ahmad III" , claims that "the twelve years ensuing on the peace of Passarovitz  witnessed a remarkable change of taste in poetry, music and architecture and a new inclination to profit by European example".
Melikoff, "Lale Devri", in Encyclopedia of Islam, new ed. Tunaya was a renowned and well-respected historian of the various political and ideological movements in Turkey. Hilav, "Dusunee Tarihi ", in S. Aksin ed. Istanbul, , p.
Tunaya, Turkiyenin Siyasi, p. A Yeleological Agenda 5 important turning point in Turkish history. Evin, for instance, states that "[a]long with French architecture, the [Fjrench garden also appeared in Turkey" during Damad B. Evin, "The Tulip Age", p.
As a result, another layer of the meaning of the Tulip Age5 seems to be that with the visual culture of the West, European ideas and habits entered the Ottoman Empire as well. Evin, for example, talks about an "interest in secular learning" as being prevalent at the time. The conservative-progressive tension that gradually eroded the Empire at the very end was established.
Melikoff, "Lale Devri", p. Gocek, East encounters West. Strohmeier, Seldschuldsche Geschichte and turldsche Geschichtswissenschaft. Die Seldschuken im Urteil modemer tiirkischer Historiker Berlin, , p. Neumann, Arag Tarih, Amag Tanzimat. Quataert ed. At the time he was a well-respected member of the government-sponsored historical society Tarih-i Osmani Encumeni [TOE], founded on 27 November Ahmed Refik himself recalls his trip to Paris in a piece he wrote on the French historian Ernest Lavisse , which first appeared in the daily Ikdam on 16 November Salzman, "The Age of Tulips", pp.
II, p. The piece was reprinted together with articles on the historians Jules Michelet and Albert Vandal Ahmed Refik, Fransiz Muverrihleri. Vandal Istanbul, , pp. His most well-known work is the literary history Resimli Turk Edebiyati Taiihi But he also proved to be a prolific contributor to such periodical as Altiok, Or him, Otuken, Atsiz and Ulkii.
These writings brought Jacob Landau to characterise this conservative figure as a Pan-Turkist sympathiser, in particular refering to the article "Buyuk Ulkuler ve Kiiciik tdealistler" in Orhun, 11, 1 November , in his well-known study of the phenomenon of Turanism or Pan-Turkism. Landau, Pan-Turkism in Turkey, p. Ahmed Refik furnished his text with 58 33 footnotes, 39 references to Ottoman and 20 to non-Ottoman sources.
Another Ottoman source used by the historian is the biographical compilation executed by Tayyarzade Ahmed Ata 36 c. The non-Ottoman sources are firstly a work composed by the 32 N.
Suner Pekin ed. Refik, hale Devri , 1st ed. The book shall henceforth be referred to as Ldle. Tarih-i Rdsid, 2nd ed. Heller also called the book simply "Soubhi". XIV : J. The identity of this source seems to be problematic. De Bonac had composed a Memoire pour servir a dresser une histoire de VAmbassade et des Amhassadeurs de France, aupres des Grands Seigneurs, which was continued in by the Comte de Saint- Priest In the late nineteenth century the French Orientalist Charles 37 Schefer edited this text.
Ahmed Refik also makes references to a number of letters written by the ambassador De Bonac to his government in Paris. Ahmed Refik also made use of the French historian Vincent Mignot c. For reasons which shall be discussed below greater importance should possibly be ascribed to nineteenth-century French historians used by Ahmed Refik, Auguste Boppe and particularly Albert Vandal In early twentieth- century Ottoman Turkey the perception of Damad Ibrahim was predicated on the negative verdict pronounced by the Tarih-i Cevdet in the previous century.
Schefer Amsterdam, But this did not detract him from championing the cause of Damad Ibrahim as an innovator. The Cevdet dealt with the development of Ottoman history prior to the conclusion of the Treaty of Kucuk Kaynarca in twelve separate entries ["makale"]. Tarih-i Cevdet, vol. Aktepe istanbul, Rasim, Osmanh Tarihi, vol. The addition compiled by Dilaverzade Omer Efendi d.
Freiburg, , [II] pp. Hadikat ul-Vuzera, [II], pp. The information on Damad ibrahim can be found in the second volume [vol. A Teleological Agenda. In the Batrona and Muslu rebellion which took place on the 15th day of Rebiyulewel , our soldiers were scattered and routed by the Janissaries.
It would appear possible to identify this work with one of the books printed by Ibrahim Muteferrika: Usui ul-Hikem fi Nizam ul-Umem. Original in appendix. Wright, Jr. Princeton, ]. Bosworth, "Nasihat al-Muluk", in EI, new ed. VII, pp. Temimi Zaghouan, Tunis, , pp. Bosworth, "Nasihat al-Muluk", p. He calls this presentation of socio-political systems, "the first of its kind in any modem Muslim country". Berkes, The Development, p. A Teleological Agenda 14 52 revolutionised warfare in contemporary Europe.
Miiteferrika describes the different armies maintained by the kings of Christendom, their training, methods of waging war, and their military laws. According to Bernard Lewis, Miiteferrika, in this text, "makes clear the superiority of the Frankish armies, and the importance for the Ottomans of imitating them". According to John Childs the modern, centrally controlled standing army, comprising infantry, artillery, engineers, and cavalry, was developed towards the end of the seventeenth century and dominated eighteenth-century Berkes calls this section a "detailed description of the new military methods used in the West".
Berkes, Tlie Development, p. Lewis, The Emergence, p. A Teleological Agenda 15 Europe. The Ottomans had in fact been the first to develop such an armed force as the so-called Kapukulu Ocaklari had constituted the first example of a professionally organised permanent military body.
These troops once the most efficient army in Europe and Asia, which reached their zenith in the mid-sixteenth century, had by the eighteenth century 58 entered civilian life as traders and peddlers selling a variety of goods in peace time.
This apparent lack of critical 56 J. Childs, Annies and Warfare in Europe , Manchester, , p. Lindsay ed. Acemi Ocagi ve Yenigeri Ocagi Ankara, , pp. Ilgurel, "Yeniceriler", in Z4, vol. XIII , pp. Murphey, Ottoman Warfare London, , pp. XIV, p. Frye ed. A Teleological Agenda 15 analysis led him to promulgate very far-fetched propositions.
Taking the existence of this book as a starting point, Ahmed Ata proposes that, following its successful presentation to Ahmed III, its description of the training and instruction of soldiers led to the establishment of an Ottoman standing army.
Ahmet Refik Altınay